Heat the oil in a large pot over medium heat. Add the onion and salt and sauté until the onion is translucent, about 5 minutes. Add the garlic, cumin, coriander, and chili powder and stir for 30 seconds. Stir in the beans, chipotles, adobo sauce, and broth and simmer for 30 minutes.
Let cool slightly and transfer half of the soup mixture to a blender. Puree until smooth, then add it back to the pot with the remaining soup and stir. Stir in the lime juice. Serve with lime wedges and desired toppings.
*If you're sensitive to spice, feel free to scale back to one chipotle pepper.